In economics an isocost line shows all combinations of inputs which cost the same total amount The isocost line is combined with the isoquant map to determine the optimal production point at any given level of output. Specifically, the point. Isocost-isoquant analysis: theory of production: The production function: a figure known as an isoquant diagram (Figure 1). In the graph, goldsmith-hours per. Isoquants: An isoquant (equal quantity) is a curve that shows the combinations of certain inputs such as Labor (L) and Capital (K) that will produce a certain.

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But this is logically absurd because S combination is as productive as R and A combination produces as much as B. Both laws have three stages of increasing, decreasing and constant returns. You must be logged in to post a comment.

Thus only an unwise entrepreneur will produce in the dotted region of the isoquant If he were producing this output with the combination D, he would be employing CT less of capital and relatively TD more of labour. For instance, the marginal product of capital is negative at G and that of labour at R.

It means that the isoquant must be convex to the origin at every point. Isoquants are typically drawn as being convex to the origin because of the assumed substitutability of inputs. An isoquant traces out the combinations of any two inputs which yield the same level of output.

From the isoquant map, isoqhant can generate the isocot product curve of each input by holding the quantity of the other input constant. This indicates that one factor can be used a little more and other factor a little less, without changing the level of output.


This is picturised by his budget line called isocost line. It means that in order to double the output from toless than double the amounts of both factors will be required. The principle of marginal rate of technical substitution MRTS or MRS is based on isoquqnt production function where two factors can be substituted in variable proportions in such a way as to produce a constant level of output.


The increasing returns to scale are attributed to the existence of indivisibilities in machines, management, labour, finance, etc. Iso quant is also known as Production indifference curve.

Where the distance between the isoquantsand along the expansion path OR is the same, i. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

An isoquant map shows a number of isoquants representing different amounts of output. It is responsible for administering following direct taxation acts passe This proves that the marginal returns or physical productivity of the variable factor, labour, have diminished.

The firm can reach the optimal factor combination level of maximum output by moving along the isocost line CL from either point E or F to point P. Further, JK quantity of labour is required to raise output from to and KL of labour to raise output from to If the isoquant slopes upward to the right, it implies that both capital and labour increase but they produce the same output. But it cannot be at points E or F on the isocost line CL, since both points give a smaller quantity of output, being on the isoquantthan on the isoquant We study these cases separately.

To these internal diseconomies are added external diseconomies of scale. If the price of labour falls the firm could buy more of labour and the line will shift away from the origin.


An isoquant shows what a firm is desirous of producing.

Any units of output such as 5, 10, 15, 20 or,or any other units can he taken. Iso-cost line K 1 L 1 is just not relevant because the output level represented by the isoquant P is not producible by any factor combination available on this iso-cost line.

Laws of Returns: The Isoquant-Isocost Approach | Economics

In case the returns to scale are increasing strongly, that is, they are highly positive they will offset the diminishing marginal returns of the variable factor, labour. The focus of this chapter is on the firm. The iso quant closer to the origin indicates a lower level of output. A single isoquant P, in the figure denotes the desired level of output, but there is a set of iso-cost lines representing various levels of total cost outlay.

Views Read Edit View history. The slope of iso cost line indicates the ratio of the factor prices.

For example, the cost would be Rs. This is an isoquant. Enter your new password here. An isoquant isoproduct is a curve on which the various combinations of labour iwoquant capital show the same output.

Isoquant and Isocost Lines (With Diagram) | Economics

If by increasing isoquang factors, say labour and capital, in the same proportion, output increases in exactly the same proportion, there are constant returns to scale.

Returns to a factor and returns to scale are two important laws of production. All these and other various combinations are shown in Fig.