This is a reprint of the English Translation of the Nyaya Sutras of Gautama by Mm . Dr. Ganganatha Jha, the versatile Sanskrit scholar who will ever be. Where There’s Smoke There’s Fire: Gautama’s Nyāya-Sūtra. Posted on 10 December The Nyāya-Sūtra inaugurates a tradition of logical and. Nyaya: Gautama’s Nyaya-sutra, with Vatsyayana’s commentary (Indian philosophy in its sources) [Gautama (Authority on Nyayasastra)] on *FREE*.

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Neither of these interpretations would support the eternality of sound. This, we reply, is no contradiction since rumour is included in verbal testimony, and presumption, probabi- lity and non-existence are included in inference.

There being no obstruction caused by these substances, the eye comes really in contact with the external object. A sutra is a Sanskrit word that means “string, thread”, and represents a condensed manual of knowledge of a specific field or school. In reply we say that it is not so because we are capable of killing the body Avhich is the site of operations of the soul. In other words, the “I” or eoul is distinct from the senses.

Likewise there ustra, they say, the chance of nyaja end- less doubt owing to the continuity of its cause. Quibble in respect of a term consists in wil- fully taking the term in a sense other than that intended by a speaker who has happened to use it ambiguously. If letters underwent modification an increase of bulk in the original material would be attended by an in- crease of bulk in the modification.


The Nyaya-Sutras Of Gautama: With The Bhasya Of Vatsyayana And The Vartika Of Uddyotakara

Now the atoms which possess no bulk are not peyceptible. There is, we again say, no non-perception be- cause the sound [of a gong] ceases on the contact of our hand [with the gong]. The Prabhakrras admit a fifth means of right knowledge called presumption artlmpattithe Bhattas and Vcdfintins admit a sixth, viz.

There is a real contact because there is no actual obstruction caused by glass, mica, membrane or crystal. Hence though not-blueness is not a positive mark it serves as a negative mark in relation to blueness. They would never be inaudible if they were eternal. Aphorism brings forth the objection that doubt is not produced even by the recognition of common or uncommon properties alone. Views Read View source View history.

Whatever is non-eternal is destroyed by some cause.

The erratic is the reason which leads to more conclusions than one. Autra Madhyamika-karika targets Nyaya-sutra, among other Hindu texts, for his critique and in order to establish his doctrine of no self and voidness.

The ray of the eye is not perceived in conse- quence of its unobviousness but not on account of its total absence because it reaches objects through the aid of exter- ‘ nal light. Presumption is the deduction of one thing from the declaration of another thing: There are also some inscriptions in Gupta characters, and there is no doubt that Prabhfisa situated on the Saras vati acquired celebrity in very oJd times. This we deny, because action is non-eternal. The soul, we point out, has not been excluded from our definition inasmuch as knowledge is a mark of the soul.

It may be objected that the contact of a sense with its object is not the cause of perception, as it is in- efficient in some instances. By the senses and their objects are also distin- guished the special kinds of knowledge.


Full text of “The Nyaya Sutras of Gotama”

NySyaprakasa by Kesava Misra. Contact is not the cause because we do not per- ceive the ray.

Smell is the object of nose and the prominent quality of earth, taste is the object of tongue shtra quality of water, colour is the object of eye and quality of light, touch is the object of skin and quality of air, and sound is the object of ear and gaugama of ether. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer – no Kindle device required.

Just as a balance is an instrument for measuring weight but is a measured object when it is itself weighed in another balance, so the senses, etc. The foregoing objection is not valid because we cannot perceive what is screened from us by walls.

For instance, a thing which is screened from us by a wall is not perceived by our eyes. If a person lias no soul beyond his body he should be freed from sins when the body is destroyed.

An occasion for rebuke arises when one mis- understands or does not understand at all.