Common Name: West African Rubber Tree. Funtumia elastica. Drawing of the leaves and flowers. Photograph by: Matilda Smith Public domain. Funtumia elastica (Preuss) Stapf [family APOCYNACEAE]. Common names. English West African rubber tree; Lagos silk rubber tree; bush rubber (Ghana. Description. Tree to 30 m tall; bole straight and cylindrical, crown narrow; bark brown to dark, thin, slightly fissured, becoming granular on old trees; Slash orange.

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Recognition profile of Morus nigra agglutinin Morniga G expressed by monomeric ligands, simple clusters and mammalian polyvalent glycotopes.

After euthanasia, peritoneal cavities were washed with 8 ml sterile HBSS injected and retrieved. Bradley Jones, University of Iowa for use in an enterocolitis model of ST infection involving pretreatment with streptomycin [ 33 ]. It was also apparent that treatment with Yam-I at many doses greatly reduced variability between animals; however, wide variation between PBS-treated animals precluded statistical significance within experiments. Anim Health Res Rev.

Funtumia elastica

Where presented, statistical significance was calculated using an unpaired, one-tailed t-test in Prism 5 GraphPad, Inc. However, there is precedence for novel non-LPS, plant-derived polysaccharides that interact with TLR4 to drive monocyte responses and that result in non-TLR4-dependent T cell responses.

After 3 hours, neutrophil recruitment into the peritoneum was measured by flow cytometry. These fractions were analyzed by HPLC and approximate molecular weights were determined as follows: Immunoregulatory functions of gamma delta T cells.

Funtumia elastica (PROSEA) – PlantUse English

Human gamma delta T cells recognize alkylamines derived from microbes, edible plants, and tea: Very low concentrations of Yam-I drove neutrophil recruitment peritonitis in mice that was partially fumtumia receptor 4 TLR4 – and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 MyD88 -independent, suggesting a mechanism unique from that of LPS.


A colorimetric method for the determination of sugars.

Introduction Herbal products have been used as effective treatments for millennia and their use is increasing rapidly, yet in many cases their safety and specific mechanisms of action are not well defined. MyDdeficient mice also responded to low doses of Yam-I. The in vivo activity of low concentrations of Yam-I were consistent with the low functional concentrations found in in vitro assays, suggesting that the Yam-I fraction is a concentrated source of the bioactive agonists.

Differential production of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 in response to Th1- and Th2-stimulating pathogens by gamma delta Elasticw cells in vivo. Seven hours post-infection, mice were treated by i.

Funtumia elastica – Useful Tropical Plants

Depletion of a gamma delta T cell subset can increase host resistance to a bacterial infection. These fractions were analyzed by HPLC, and elution was monitored with a refractive index detector as described previously [ 30 ]. Yam-I obtained from before and after two sequential rounds of PMB treatment was tested in the peritonitis model using C3H: Electrophoretic analysis of heterogeneous lipopolysaccharides from various strains of Vibrio vulnificus biotypes 1 and 2 by silver staining and immunoblotting.

HeOuJ mice 5 mice per groupand peritonitis was similarly measured. Error bars represent SD. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain. Macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potential.

Associated Data Supplementary Materials Antigens in tea-beverage prime human Vgamma 2Vdelta 2 T cells in vitro and in vivo for memory and nonmemory antibacterial cytokine responses. Retrieved from elasica https: Bioorg Med Chem Lett.

Author manuscript; available in PMC Oct 1. Down modulation of the inflammatory response to bacterial infection by gamma delta T cells cytotoxic for activated macrophages. Antigen recognition by human T cell receptor gamma-positive lymphocytes. Am J Respir Cell Mol. The only published characterizations of Funtumia elastica describes the isolation of steroidal alkaloids from its leaves and bark with antiplasmodial [ 52 ] or antifungal activity [ 53 ].


Isolation, characterization and antiplasmodial activity of steroidal alkaloids from Funtumia elastica Preuss Stapf. Percentage values represent live lymphocytes having divided at least once. Negative regulation of airway responsiveness that is dependent on gamma delta T cells and independent of alphabeta T cells. At present it is elasticq of no importance. Fractionation and characterization of biologically-active polysaccharides from Artemisia tripartita.

Before the arrival of Hevea rubber, this was the most promising rubber tree in many tropical regions, primarily in West Africa. The supernatant fluid was removed and the process was repeated with fresh Polymyxin Support beads. Lines in Figure 2 represent the average relative gene expression levels of genes that changed at least 1. These smaller fractions, which elastuca difficult to generate, were used for limited in vitro assays.

In Africa some parts of the tree are also used medicinally: KimmelBrett FreedmanIgor A. Evidence for involvement of the gamma, delta T cell antigen receptor in cytotoxicity mediated by human alloantigen-specific T cell clones.

CDnegative cells were then stained with GD3. This page was last modified on 23 Februaryat Treatment of infectious diseases with immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs.